capital of peru lima

Peru is a country that is explicitly located in the eastern part of South America. The wonderful Andean country borders both the wonderful Pacific Ocean and the countries of Chile, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador. Peru is located in the middle of an area where plateaus, peaks, and valleys abound. And with the Peruvian Andes as the backbone of the country and a large part of the Amazonian territory, it is a territory full of natural landscapes. But one of its most inhabited areas is the coast, where a large part of the country’s population lives. And exactly where the capital of Peru is located is on the coast. That is why together with the Machu Travel Peru team we want to tell you everything about the capital of Peru, Lima. Learn about this magical city that is often overlooked.

And the capital city of Lima is essentially a historic city with a clear stamp of the colonial era and a modern urban dynamism that permeates the streets. In winter the weather is generally cloudy with some light or practically zero rains. While in the summers you can see some views on the horizon from the cliffs. Where you can appreciate the sea and its waves breaking on the different beaches. The capital of Peru is spread out with quiet corners, new streets, and elegant old buildings. While the night air transforms the city into a new and distinctive place where youth take over the streets. You will find many things to do in Lima, so you should not miss exploring this city.

Everything you need to know about the capital of Peru, Lima


which is the capital of peru

About the name of the city, it is said that it comes from the Quechua language. Lima is a derivative of Lemak, which means “the one who can speak” or “the one who speaks.” However, this name does not refer to the inhabitants of the capital of Peru, but rather to the Rímac River. Since the Rímac River is known as the “talking river”. Because the stones in its channel that are dragged create a sound similar to babbling.

The capital of Peru was founded in 1535. The city of Lima was founded by the Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro in 1535. Francisco chose the site as his capital thanks to the strategic location near the sea where it would form the main port, Callao. This was a focal point within the Peruvian coast. And Lima ended up being the political, ecclesiastical, and commercial capital of the Spanish Kingdom within South America. Even during colonial times, it was considered the most important municipality in Latin America.

But today, the capital of Peru is an important political and economic center of the country. In addition, it is home to 30% of the total population of Peru. A vast majority of its surviving colonial buildings and temples give the city great architectural aesthetics. And the historic center is where you can enjoy a true fusion of architectural styles to know. Where you will find buildings such as Santo Domingo, San Francisco, La Catedral, Palacio Torre Tagle, La Iglesia de San Pedro and Las Nazarenas. In addition to its beautiful 19th-century houses that have impressive balconies. Nor should you miss the markets in Lima, an important cultural center to visit.


where is the capital of peru

The capital of Peru, Lima, is located in the middle of the coastal desert of Peru. Right at the foot of the western slope of the country’s central Andes. And even though the original settlement was located in the Rímac river valley, today the city extends over a vast area. The city occupies a vast desert region and other different valleys around it. And the Main Square or Plaza de Armas in Lima is located about 161 meters above sea level. While the highest district of the city is that of Lurigancho, located about 950 meters above sea level.

Most of the city lies in a flat region within the valleys of three rivers. These rivers are the Rímac, Chillón and Lurín. While the elevation of the capital of Peru gradually increases as one moves away from the coast, leading to mountains of more than 5000 feet. As well as other isolated hills in the city that can lead to other altitudes. And the center of the city is located about 15 kilometers from the coast of the Pacific Ocean.

The capital of Peru borders the coast from the Ancón district in the limits of the Huaral Province, at KM 50 of the North Pan-American Highway to KM 70 of the South Pan-American Highway of the District of Pucusana, just in the limits of the Cañete province. What makes up an extension of about 130 kilometers of coastal beaches. While to the east it extends to kilometer 50 of the Central Highway in the District of Chosica, right on the limits of the Province of Huarochirí.


the history of the capital of peru

Before the arrival of the conquerors, the area that we know today as Lima was occupied by numerous indigenous cultures and civilizations. But from the 15th century, the region came under the conquest of the Inca Empire. And it was in this way until the year 1532 when the Spanish defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and ended the Inca kingdom. It was the Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro who founded the capital of Peru on January 18, 1535. Although at that time it was not part of Peru but of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Besides, it was named “The City of Kings”. At that time, the “Spanish” city served as the axis and center of Spanish power in South America. But over time it took on the name of Lima, which was the name that the native peoples had given it.

The foundation proceeded in the settlement of Curacazgo de Taulichusco. This was superimposed on the roads and indigenous buildings by the new Spanish Renaissance buildings. But since then, different traditions, ideas, and customs arose due to the overlapping of cultures. And along with international and local migrations, cultural, spatial, and social growth has increased.

The initial project for the capital of Peru consisted of about 117 blocks. The Plaza Mayor or Plaza de Armas was not located in the center of the map, but rather close to what was the river bank. In this way, it was possible to have access and control of the water that was distributed in the different channels. And it was thus that Lima was initially defined for its subsequent development and evolution.

Today the city has more than 9 million inhabitants, a number that continues to grow. And it expands on a colorful architecture full of different styles and details. Lima is a melting pot of cultures and ethnicities. A mix between the old and the modern and one of the best tourist sites in Peru


weather in the capital of peru

The climate in the capital of Peru is quite particular due to its geographical location. Lima’s climate has practically a lack of rainfall but a high level of humidity accompanied by persistent cloudiness. Its climate and its strange characteristics astonish despite being located in a somewhat tropical area. This region is approximately at sea level and about 12 degrees latitude. Due to its location on the central Peruvian coast, the capital of Peru presents a collection of distinctive microclimates caused by the influential Humboldt Current. That this derives from Antarctica in the proximity of the mountain ranges and the tropical location. The current endows Lima with a true humid climate, desert, and subtropical at the same time.

It can be said that the climate in the capital of Peru is quite warm without presenting excessive heat or extreme cold. So you will not require heating at home, except that it is winter. The average annual temperature is about 19 to 18 º C this has an annual maximum of 29 º C. While the summers that pass from December to April have temperatures that range between 21 to 28 º C. Only when the “El Niño” phenomenon occurs, the temperature in summer can exceed 31 º C. While winters usually occur between June and September. The winter of Lima contains temperatures that range between 12 and 19 º C. And the historically proven minimum temperature is about 5 º C. While in the autumn and spring seasons there are temperatures that fluctuate between 17 and 23 º C.

On the other hand, there is persistent humidity in the capital of Peru that is accompanied by witty fogs. The fogs are most present from June to December until the beginning of summer. During the summer the clouds are lower and you can see a sunny and hot climate with recurring humidity. Winters are quite mild and cloudy. Something to keep in mind in the capital of Peru is how the rain is almost nil. Regarding the best time to visit Lima, we can say that summer is the best time. Although the whole year is a good time.


demographics in the capital of peru

The capital of Peru has a figure of about 9 million inhabitants according to the census made in 2018. The capital of Peru is home to around a quarter of the Peruvian population in total, so you can appreciate true cultural diversity and ethnicity. Its millions of inhabitants are the cause of the rural migration that has occurred in recent decades. Especially the one that occurred in the 60s of the 20th century. At the beginning of independence, the city was made up of a population of Spanish, African, Amerindian, and mestizo origin. But with the start of the Republic, the city became a source of European immigrants. The vast majority are Italians, Germans, French, and British as well as other Central Europeans. Also, at the end of the 19th century with an influx of Asian Japanese and Chinese immigrants, diversity was further promoted.

Today the dominant economic population comes from the descendants of Europeans. These are very active in city finance and industrial sectors. This population is made up mostly of Italian and Spanish descendants, although there are also Germans and other Central Europeans. And during the 20th century, the capital of Peru was host to Asian communities, especially Chinese and Japanese descendants. The Japanese community was the second largest in America after Brazil. And a large foreign population only travels to the city to go from Lima to Machu Picchu. So there is also a great flow of tourism throughout the year.


The capital of Peru is a melting pot of cultures, ethnicities, and traditions. So it is not surprising that there are also other languages in addition to its official language. The official language of the city is Spanish, occupying 84% of its inhabitants. The Spanish spoken in Peru is considered Castellano. And it is the main language used in the Peruvian educational system, the media, and the bulletins of the Peruvian government. But this does not mean that it is the only language, there are also other indigenous languages. The official native language is Quechua, and it is also present in the city of Lima. Aymara is also another of the original native languages, although it is more prevalent in other regions of Peru. It is important to note that many travelers travel to our city, which is why different variations of spoken Spanish are detected.

While the predominant religion in Peru is the Catholic religion. There are other religions both in the country and in the city of Lima. This is due to the great diversification and cultures that exist. Other religions of Peru include Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism. Although many indigenous Peruvians also mixed their traditional beliefs with the same Catholicism. And many of the temples are today considered great historical buildings in Lima. So you must know them thoroughly.


As you will see, the capital of Peru is a point as relevant as it is essential to get to know the country. Besides, if you are planning a trip to Peru you will have to land on this site. So we recommend you not to miss out on this wonderful site. Together with the Machu Travel Peru team, we hope we have been helpful. If you are planning your trip to Peru, we recommend that you consult our other articles. We do them with love and thinking of you. Don’t miss it and start organizing your dream trip! 

Peru has so much to offer, it can be hard to know where to start. With many years of experience in the tourism sector, Machu Travel Peru is happy to help with anything regarding your trip to Machu Picchu and any tours around it. Make your Machu Picchu experience an unforgettable one!